Printmaking is the name of the process which is used to produce “artworks” by printing, and done most of the tile on paper. Printmaking normally covers only the process of creating prints that have an element of originality, rather than just being a photographic reproduction of a painting.

printing-history

There are several printing techniques such as the woodcut technique which is the first technique ever known in printmaking history.

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WOODCUT process

It is a form of relief-printing. Firstly, in the 5th century it was used in China for printing text and images on paper. Woodcuts of images on paper developed around 1400 in Japan, and slightly later in Europe. These are the two areas where woodcut has been most extensively used purely as a process for making images without text. Woodcut prints are produced by pressing the selected paper onto the inked image.

 

The printing press technique was a developed version of Movable Typing which allowed mass newspapers to be produced. It involved the same processes such as arranging metal letters and applying pressure to print an image, mainly on paper.

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PRINTING PRESS

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The Offset Printing technique process came to be the most popular form of printing during the 1950’s as plates, inks, paper, etc. improved. By the late 1950’s, offset printing dominated all other printing processes because it provided sharp clean images.Today, the majority of printing which is over 50%, including newspapers, is done by the offset process. the offset technique process employs a flat image carrier on which the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a water-based film , keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.  2016-09-09_15_30_15-a0064122_4c09094e08c20.gif_778_440_.pngThe screen printing technique is a very easy way to make posters,  prints are made by using a fabric stencil technique, the  ink is simply pushed through the stencil against the surface of the paper, most often with the aid of a squeegee. The process is not that old but has been invented several times over around the world. Some of the earliest applications can be found in mediaeval Japan, but it appeared in Europe in the 18th century particularly in France for stencilling patterns on to fabric and objects like shoes.

As a printing technique it can print on almost any surface whether it is paper, card, wood, glass, plastic, leather or any fabric.

The spirit Duplicator or also called Mimeograph technique is a printing method invented in 1923 commonly used for much of the rest of the 20th century.The duplicator used two-ply “spirit masters”.There is no separate ink used in spirit duplication, as the wax transferred to the back side of the first sheet contained the ink. As the paper to be printed moved through the printer, the solvent was spread across each sheet by an absorbent wick. When the solvent-impregnated paper came into contact with the back side of the first sheet, it dissolved just enough of the pigmented wax to print the image onto the paper as it went under the printing drum.

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Spirit duplicator

 

 

The Xenography technique is a dry photocopying technique. The first commercial use was hand processing of a flat photosensor which is an electronic component that detects the presence of visible light, with a copy camera and a separate processing unit to produce offset lithographic plates. By using a cylinder to carry the photosensor. A metal cylinder called the drum is mounted to rotate about a horizontal axis. The drum rotates at the speed of paper output.

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xenography technique

The Laser Printing technique is an electrostatic digital printing process made by Gary Starkweather in 1969, He demonstrated by using a laser beam with the xerography process to create a laser printer.

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LASER PRINTING

The printing process makes a laser beam scan back and forth across a drum inside the printer, building up a pattern of static electricity. The static electricity attracts onto the page a kind of powdered ink called toner. Finally, as in a photocopier, a fuser unit bonds the toner to the paper.

 

 

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Thermal Printing technique is a digital printing process which produces a printed image by selectively heating coated thermochromic paper which is a special fine paper that is provided with a chemical that changes color when exposed to heat , when the paper passes over the thermal print head.

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The 3D printing technique  is a processes used to synthesize a three dimensional (3D) object in which successive layers of material are formed under computer control to create an object.Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and are produced from digital 3D model.

The Digital Printing technique

 

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The poster I am going to analyse is from Adolphe Mouron Cassandre. The layout of this poster has been made in a very simple way which all the elements in the poster are brought together in the middle, and probably make a strong feeling about the poster.

  1.  In the poster the first view we are focused on is the HAND connected to a outlet by a cable. The hand has been made quiet big to present strength which make the customer suppose that the article is going to be something effective and powerful.
  2. The Outlet connected means that it is a electronical device. The red cable confirmed also that it is electronical but Adolphe presented it twisted in a kind of infinite symbol.
  3. The stars has been put above  the fingers which symbolize magic, and make the customer think the product is “magic” and going to be very useful.
  4. The french quote “LA MAIN-D’OEUVRE ELECTRO-DOMESTIQUE” means Electro-household’s workforce make us know that it is about cleaning.
  5. “THOMSON”  has been placed in the central part of the poster as the title and also the name of the product.
  6. In the top right there is the signature of the creator which is quiet visible on purpose to don’t make us see it at first.
  7. In the bottom left there is the company informations made in a very little font to not attract the customer by it at first.

 Poster 2

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This poster is very famous in all around the world but especially in the United states of America. This poster is a propaganda made for the military recruitment.

  1. In the middle we can see a old men called the “uncle Sam” dressed up with the colors of USA (blue,white and red). In the poster, uncle Sam is taking nearly all place in the poster which is more than the half of it, to make us see it before any other details in the poster. We can see that his position has been made like if he was pointing at the viewer and also he’s expression in his face seem to be very serious which suggests that it is about a important cause.
  2. The second mainly attractive point of view in this poster is the text ” I WANT YOU FOR U.S ARMY” which has been made in a very big font to get an impact in the viewer minds. The fonts are in black in the inside of the letter and red in the outline of it, but it has been reversed on the word ” YOU” which suggests that the poster is addressing to the viewer and gives him more desire to engage in the army.The quote “FOR U.S ARMY” is slightly in smaller letters to do not attract before the slogan “I WANT YOU”.
  3. “Nearest Recruiting Station” Is in a smaller font and all black which suggests that is less important than the slogan but still important because it gaves the information for where to apply to join the army.
  4. The backgound is a simple white background with the shadows of the uncle Sam to don’t make it seem empty, and not attract the attention .
  5. The contours are made with Two parallel band which are one colored in red and the other in blue, which emphasizes the US country.

 

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